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DEFINITION OF INVESTMENT
Investment does not include:
Investment of an investor from a Party:
the investment owned by an investor from one Party or under such investor’s direct or indirect control. (Article 15-01).
DEFINITION OF INVESTOR
Investor from a Party: a Party or a State enterprise of same, or a national or enterprise of that Party, which carries out the legal acts needed to make an investment, or which makes or has made an investment in the territory of the other Party. (Article 15-01).
Application in Time (Entry into Force and Duration: Applicability to Investments made Prior to Entry into Force)
The Free Trade Agreement between Bolivia and Mexico was signed on September 10, 1994 and entered into force on January 1, 1995.
Nothing in Article 15-03 shall be construed to prevent a Party from adopting or maintaining a measure that prescribes special formalities in connection with the establishment of investments by investors of another Party, such that investments be legally constituted under the laws or regulations of the Party, provided that such formalities do not substantially impair the protection afforded by a Party pursuant to this Chapter. (Article 15-10(1)).
There is no separate clause on admission. The issue is dealt with in the treatment provisions. See section on Treatment.
Fair and Equitable Treatment
Full Protection and Security
Each Party shall grant investors of the other Party and investments of investors of the other Party treatment no less favorable than that it grants, in like circumstances, to its own investors. (Article 15-03(1)).
Most-Favored Nation Treatment
Each Party shall grant investors of the other Party and investments of investors of the other Party treatment that is no less favorable than that it grants, in like circumstances, to investors and investments of the other Party or those of a third country, except as provided in Article 15-04(2). (Article 15-04(1)).
Exceptions and Reservations
Articles 15-03 to 15-06 [National Treatment; Most-Favored-Nation Treatment; Performance Requirements; and Senior Management and Boards of Directors] do not apply to any inconsistent measure maintained by a Party in accordance with its legislation at the time this Agreement enters into force, whatever the level or order of government. Each Party shall list these measures in Annex 1 to this Article within no more than one year from the entry into force of this Agreement. No measure adopted by a Party in the future may be more restrictive than those in force at the time this Agreement enters into effect. (Article 15-07(1)).
Articles 15-03 to 15-06 shall not apply to any inconsistent measure adopted or maintained by a Party concerning any activities listed in Annex 2 to this Article at the time of signature of this Agreement. The Parties, in adopting or maintaining such incompatible measures, shall endeavor to achieve a global equilibrium in their obligations. After a period of two years has elapsed from the entry into force of this Agreement, no measure adopted by a Party shall be more restrictive than those in effect at the end of said period. (Article 15-07(2)).
Treatment granted by a Party in accordance with Article 15-04 does not apply to the treaties or sectors specified in the list of the annex to this Article. (Article 15-07(3)).
Articles 15-03, 15-04, and 15-06 do not apply to:
The provisions contained in:
This Chapter does not apply to:
If a Party has granted or subsequently grants special treatment to investors of a third country, or investments made by these investors, by virtue of agreements to avoid double taxation or establishing free trade areas, customs unions, common markets, economic or monetary unions or similar arrangements, said Party shall not be obliged to grant the same treatment to investors or investments of the other Party. (Article 15-04(2)).
Denial of Benefits
Subject to prior notification and consultation with the other Party, a Party may deny the benefits of this chapter to an investor from the other Party who is an enterprise of the Party and to investments of that investor, when investors from a non-Party country are majority owners or control the enterprise and it does not have substantial business activities in the territory of the Party under whose legislation it is established or organized. (Article 15-12).
No Party may impose or require compliance with the following requirements or commitments, with respect to any investment in its territory:
Paragraph 1 does not apply to any requirement other than the requirements set out in this paragraph. (Article 15-05(2)).
No Party may condition the receipt or continued receipt of an advantage in connection with an investment in its territory on compliance with any of the following requirements:
Paragraph 3 does not apply to any requirement other than the requirements set out in this paragraph. (Article 15-05(4)).
Nothing in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be construed to prevent a Party from conditioning the receipt or continued receipt of an advantage, in connection with an investment in its territory, upon requirements concerning geographic location of production units, employment generation or labor training or performance of research and development activities. (Article 15-05(5)).
Each Party shall grant investors of the other Party nondiscriminatory treatment with respect to investments that suffer losses in its territory due to armed conflicts or civil disputes, or acts of God or force majeure, with respect to any measure it adopts or maintains in regard to such losses. (Article 15-03(2)).
No Party may require that an enterprise of that Party appoint to senior management positions individuals of any particular nationality. (Article 15-06(1)).
A Party may require that the members of the administrative organs of an enterprise be of a particular nationality, provided such requirement does not substantially reduce an investor’s ability to exercise control over his investment. (Article 15-06(2)).
With respect to the investments of its investors established and organized in accordance with the legislation of another Party, a Party may not exercise jurisdiction or adopt any measure that has the effect of extraterritorial application of its legislation or of obstructing trade between the Parties, or between a Party and a non-Party country. (Article 15-13(1)).
If a Party fails to comply with the provisions of Article 15-13(1), the Party where the investment is established may adopt such measures and take such steps as it deems necessary to nullify the effect of the legislation or measure concerned and the obstacles to trade resulting from such legislation or measure. (Article 15-13(2)).
Nothing in this Chapter shall be construed to prevent a Party from adopting, maintaining or enforcing any measure otherwise consistent with this Chapter that it considers appropriate to ensure that investment activity in its territory is undertaken in a manner sensitive to environmental concerns. (Article 15-14(1)).
The Parties recognize that it is inappropriate to encourage investment by relaxing environmental measures, domestic health, and safety measures. Accordingly, a Party shall not waive or otherwise derogate from, or offer to waive or otherwise derogate from, such measure as an encouragement for the establishment, acquisition, expansion or retention in its territory of an investment. If a Party considers that another Party has offered such an encouragement, it may request consultations with the other Party. (Article 15-14(2)).
TYPES OF PAYMENT
Each Party shall permit all transfers relating to an investment of an investor of the other Party in its territory to be made freely and without delay. Such transfers include:
Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 15-08, a Party may prevent a transfer through the equitable and non-discriminatory application of its laws relating to:
CONVERTIBILITY, EXCHANGE RATES, AND TIMES OF TRANSFER
Each Party shall permit transfers to be made in a freely convertible currency at the exchange rate prevailing on the market on the date of transfer. (Article 15-08(2)).
Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article, each Party may establish temporary controls on foreign exchange transactions, provided the balance of payments of the Party is in disequilibrium and that there is a program implemented with internationally accepted criteria. (Article 15-08(4)).
No party may nationalize or expropriate, directly or indirectly, an investment of an investor from another Party in its territory, or adopt an equivalent measure (“expropriation”), except:
The compensation shall be equivalent to the fair market value of the expropriated investment immediately before the expropriation measure is put into effect (“date of expropriation”), and shall not reflect any change in value due to the intention to expropriate having been known prior to the date of expropriation. The valuation criteria shall include the declared taxable value of tangible assets, together with such other criteria as are deemed appropriate for determining the fair market value. (Article 15-09(2)).
The payment of the compensation shall be made without delay and shall be fully realizable. (Article 15-09(3)).
The sum paid shall not be less than the equivalent amount that would have been paid for compensation in a freely convertible currency in the international financial market on the date of expropriation, said currency being converted at the market rate on the valuation date, plus the interest that would have been generated at a reasonable commercial rate for that currency up to the date of payment. (Article 15-09(4)).
Chapter XIX on Dispute Settlement is applicable.
The disputing parties shall first endeavor to settle disputes by means of consultation or negotiation. (Article 15-18).
In accordance with this section, only an investor from one Party, acting for his own account or on behalf of an enterprise of the other Party that is a juridical person owned by him or under his direct or indirect control, may submit to arbitration a complaint the basis for which is that the other Party or an enterprise directly or indirectly controlled by that Party has allegedly violated an obligation specified in this chapter, provided the enterprise has suffered losses or harm due to the violation or as a result of it. (Article 15-19(1)).
The investor may not submit a complaint in accordance with this section if more than three years have elapsed since the date on which he become aware of or should have been aware of the alleged violation against his investment, and of the losses or harm suffered. (Article 15-19(2)).
When an investor submits a complaint on behalf of an enterprise that is a juridical person owned by him or under his direct or indirect control, and at the same time an investor who does not control an enterprise submits a complaint for his own account as a result of the same acts, or two or more complaints are submitted to arbitration on account of the same measure adopted by a Party, the consolidation tribunal established in accordance with Article 15-27 shall examine these complaints jointly, except when that tribunal determines that the interests of one disputing party would suffer thereby. (Article 15-19(3)).
When an enterprise from one Party that is a juridical person owned by one or more investors from the other Party or under their direct of indirect control, alleges in proceedings before a judicial court that the other Party has violated an obligation specified in Section A, the investor or investors may not allege the presumed violation in arbitration proceedings in accordance with this section. (Article 15-19(4)) An investment or an enterprise may not submit a complaint to arbitration in accordance with this section. (Article 15-19(5)).
A disputing investor, acting for his own account or on behalf of an enterprise, may submit a claim to arbitration in accordance with this section, solely if:
The consent and waiver required by this Article shall be expressed in writing, delivered to the disputing Party and shall be included in the submission of a claim to arbitration. (Article 15-22(2)).
Each Party consents to submit claims to arbitration with adherence to the procedures and requirements set forth in this section. (Article 15-23(1)). The submission of a claim to arbitration by a disputing investor shall satisfy the requirement of:
Forms of Arbitration
Provided six months have elapsed since the measure that prompted the claim, a disputing investor may submit the complaint to arbitration in accordance with:
Save as provided by Article 15-27 and provided that both the disputing Party and the Party of the disputing investor are States party to the ICSID Convention, any dispute between them shall be submitted in accordance with paragraph 1(a). (Article 15-21(2)).
The rules selected in accordance with an arbitration procedure established in this chapter will be applicable except insofar as amended or modified by this section. (Article 15-21(3)).
Constitution of the Tribunal
With the exception of the provisions of Article 15-27 and without prejudice to the disputing parties agreeing on something different, the tribunal shall be made up of three arbitrators. Each disputing party shall appoint one arbitrator; the third arbitrator, who shall be president of the arbitration tribunal, shall be appointed by the disputing parties in mutual agreement. (Article 15-24).
When a Party fails to appoint an arbitrator or the disputing parties are unable to agree on a presiding arbitrator, the Secretary-General [of ICSID] shall appoint the arbitrators in arbitration proceedings, in accordance with this section. (Article 15-25(1)).
When a tribunal, other than that established in accordance with Article 15-27, is not formed within 90 days of the date on which the claim is submitted to arbitration, the Secretary-General, at the request of either of the disputing parties, shall appoint, at his discretion, the arbitrator or arbitrators not yet appointed, but not the president of the tribunal, who shall be appointed in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article. (Article 15-25(2)).
The Secretary-General [of ICSID] shall appoint the president of the tribunal from among the arbitrators on the list referred to in paragraph 4, ensuring that the president of the tribunal is not a national of the disputing Party or a national of the party of the disputing investor. If there is no arbitrator on the list who is available to serve as president of the tribunal, the Secretary-General shall appoint the president of the tribunal from the ICSID Panel of Arbitrators provided he is of a nationality other than that of the disputing Party or of the Party of the disputing investor. (Article 15-25(3)).
Upon the entry into force of this Treaty, the parties shall establish and maintain a list of 15 arbitrators as possible presidents of the arbitration tribunal, who meet the criteria laid down in the ICSID Convention and in the rules referred to in Article 15-21 and who possess experience in international law and in matters concerning investments. The arbitrators who are placed on the list shall be designated by consensus without regard to nationality. (Article 15-25(4)).
A consolidation tribunal established in accordance with this article shall be installed with due observance of the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules and shall proceed as specified in those rules, except when this section provides otherwise. (Article 15-27(1)).
When a consolidation tribunal determines that the claims submitted to arbitration in accordance with Article 15-21 raise common questions of fact and law, the consolidation tribunal, in the interest of fair and efficient settlement of such questions, and after having heard the disputing Parties, may assume jurisdiction, handle and settle:
A disputing party that wishes claims to be treated jointly as detailed in paragraph 2, shall request the Secretary-General to set up a consolidation tribunal and shall specify in its request: the name of the disputing Party or of the disputing investors against whom the consolidation of claims is sought;
Paragraphs 4 to 12 contain provisions related to the constitution of the consolidation tribunal as well as to the procedure and timing for the tribunal’s settlement of the dispute. (Article 15-27).
Any tribunal established in accordance with this section shall settle the disputes submitted to it in accordance with this Treaty and with the applicable rules of international law. (Article 15-32(1)).
The interpretation given by the Commission of a provision of this Treaty shall be obligatory for any tribunal established in accordance with this section insofar as such interpretation is applicable to this chapter. (Article 15-32(2)).
When a tribunal established in accordance with this section issues an award unfavorable to a Party, said tribunal may only grant:
When the claim is made by an investor on behalf of an enterprise on the basis of Article 15-19: the award ordering restitution of ownership shall specify that restitution shall be to the enterprise;
Finality and Enforcement
The award issued by any tribunal established in accordance with this section shall be obligatory only for the disputing parties and solely with respect to the concrete case. (Article 15-36(1)).
In accordance with paragraph 3 and with the review procedure applicable to a provisional award, a disputing party shall observe and comply with the award without delay. (Article 15-36(2)).
A disputing party may request execution of a final award provided that:
Each Party shall provide for the enforcement of an award in its territory. (Article 15-36(4)).
When a disputing Party fails to comply with or does not observe a final award, the Commission, upon receipt of a request from a Party whose investor was a party in the arbitration proceedings, shall form a panel in accordance with Chapter XIX (Settlement of Disputes). The requesting Party may refer to those proceedings to obtain:
The disputing investor may resort to execution of an arbitration award in accordance with the ICSID Convention, the New York Convention or the Inter-American Convention, regardless of whether the proceedings envisaged in paragraph 5 have been initiated or not. (Article 15-36(6)).
For the purposes of Article 1 of the New York Convention and of Article I of the Inter-American Convention, it shall be deemed that the claim submitted to arbitration in accordance with this section arises from a commercial relationship or transaction. (Article 15-36(7)).
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