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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

NATIONAL LEGISLATION - USA

Patent Laws and Regulations

Regulations: Title 37, Chapter I (Subchapter A, Parts 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 15a and Subchapter B); Chapter IV and Chapter V, Code of Federal Regulations


(Continuation)

 

37 C.F.R. 1.777   Calculation of patent term extension for a medical device.

(a) If a determination is made pursuant to 1.750 that a patent for a medical device is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time as calculated in days in the manner indicated by this section. The patent term extension will run from the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date as set by terminal disclaimer ( 1.321).

(b) The term of the patent for a medical device will be extended by the length of the regulatory review period for the product as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, reduced as appropriate pursuant to paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(6) of this section.

(c) The length of the regulatory review period for a medical device will be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under 35 U.S.C. 156(g)(3)(B), it is the sum of

(1) The number of days in the period beginning on the date a clinical investigation on humans involving the device was begun and ending on the date an application was initially submitted with respect to the device under section 515 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; and

(2) The number of days in the period beginning on the date the application was initially submitted with respect to the device under section 515 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and ending on the date such application was approved under such Act or the period beginning on the date a notice of completion of a product development protocol was initially submitted under section 515(f)(5) of the Act and ending on the date the protocol was declared completed under section 515(f)(6) of the Act.

(d) The term of the patent as extended for a medical device will be determined by--

(1) Subtracting from the number of days determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to be in the regulatory review period pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section:

(i) The number of days in the periods of paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section which were on and before the date on which the patent issued;

(ii) The number of days in the periods of paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section during which it is determined under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(2)(B) by the Secretary of Health and Human Services that applicant did not act with due diligence;

(iii) One-half the number of days remaining in the period defined by paragraph (c)(1) of this section after that period is reduced in accordance with paragraphs (d)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section; half days will be ignored for purposes of subtraction;

(2) By adding the number of days determined in paragraph (d)(1) of this section to the original term of the patent as shortened by any terminal disclaimer;

(3) By adding 14 years to the date of approval of the application under section 515 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the date a product development protocol was declared completed under section 515(f)(6) of the Act;

(4) By comparing the dates for the ends of the periods obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date;

(5) If the original patent was issued after September 24, 1984,

(i) By adding 5 years to the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date set by terminal disclaimer; and

(ii) By comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(5)(i) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date;

(6) If the original patent was issued before September 24, 1984, and

(i) If no clinical investigation on humans involving the device was begun or no product development protocol was submitted under section 515(f)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act before September 24, 1984, by--

(A) Adding 5 years to the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date set by terminal disclaimer and

(B) By comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(6)(i)(A) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date; or

(ii) If a clinical investigation on humans involving the device was begun or a product development protocol was submitted under section 515(f)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act before September 24, 1984 and the commercial marketing or use of the product was not approved before September 24, 1984, by

(A) Adding 2 years to the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date set by terminal disclaimer, and

(B) By comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(6)(ii)(A) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date.

[52 FR 9394, Mar. 24, 1987]

37 C.F.R. 1.778   Calculation of patent term extension for an animal drug product.

(a) If a determination is made pursuant to 1.750 that a patent for an animal drug is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time as calculated in days in the manner indicated by this section. The patent term extension will run from the original expiration date of the patent or any earlier date set by terminal disclaimer ( 1.321).

(b) The term of the patent for an animal drug will be extended by the length of the regulatory review period for the drug as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, reduced as appropriate pursuant to paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(6) of this section.

(c) The length of the regulatory review period for an animal drug will be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under 35 U.S.C. 156(g)(4)(B), it is the sum of--

(1) The number of days in the period beginning on the earlier of the date a major health or environmental effects test on the drug was initiated or the date an exemption under subsection (j) of section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act became effective for the approved animal drug and ending on the date an application was initially submitted for such animal drug under section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; and

(2) The number of days in the period beginning on the date the application was initially submitted for the approved animal drug under subsection (b) of section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and ending on the date such application was approved under such section.

(d) The term of the patent as extended for an animal drug will be determined by--

(1) Subtracting from the number of days determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to be in the regulatory review period:

(i) The number of days in the periods of paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section that were on and before the date on which the patent issued;

(ii) The number of days in the periods of paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section during which it is determined under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(2)(B) by the Secretary of Health and Human Services that applicant did not act with due diligence;

(iii) One-half the number of days remaining in the period defined by paragraph (c)(1) of this section after that period is reduced in accordance with paragraphs (d)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section; half days will be ignored for purposes of subtraction;

(2) By adding the number of days determined in paragraph (d)(1) of this section to the original term of the patent as shortened by any terminal disclaimer;

(3) By adding 14 years to the date of approval of the application under section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act;

(4) By comparing the dates for the ends of the periods obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date;

(5) If the original patent was issued after November 16, 1988, by--

(i) Adding 5 years to the original expiration date of the patent or any earlier date set by terminal disclaimer; and

(ii) Comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(5)(i) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date;

(6) If the original patent was issued before November 16, 1988, and

(i) If no major health or environmental effects test on the drug was initiated and no request was submitted for an exemption under subsection (j) of section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act before November 16, 1988, by--

(A) Adding 5 years to the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date set by terminal disclaimer; and

(B) Comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(6)(i)(A) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date; or

(ii) If a major health or environmental effects test was initiated or a request for an exemption under subsection (j) of section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was submitted before November 16, 1988, and the application for commercial marketing or use of the animal drug was not approved before November 16, 1988, by--

(A) Adding 3 years to the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date set by terminal disclaimer, and

(B) Comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(6)(ii)(A) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date.

[54 FR 30381, July 20, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 1.779   Calculation of patent term extension for a veterinary biological product.

(a) If a determination is made pursuant to 1.750 that a patent for a veterinary biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time as calculated in days in the manner indicated by this section. The patent term extension will run from the original expiration date of the patent or any earlier date set by terminal disclaimer ( 1.321).

(b) The term of the patent for a veterinary biological product will be extended by the length of the regulatory review period for the product as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture, reduced as appropriate pursuant to paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(6) of this section.

(c) The length of the regulatory review period for a veterinary biological product will be determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. Under 35 U.S.C. 156(g)(5)(B), it is the sum of--

(1) The number of days in the period beginning on the date the authority to prepare an experimental biological product under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act became effective and ending on the date an application for a license was submitted under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act; and

(2) The number of days in the period beginning on the date an application for a license was initially submitted for approval under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act and ending on the date such license was issued.

(d) The term of the patent as extended for a veterinary biological product will be determined by--

(1) Subtracting from the number of days determined by the Secretary of Agriculture to be in the regulatory review period:

(i) The number of days in the periods of paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section that were on and before the date on which the patent issued;

(ii) The number of days in the periods of paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section during which it is determined under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(2)(B) by the Secretary of Agriculture that applicant did not act with due diligence;

(iii) One-half the number of days remaining in the period defined by paragraph (c)(1) of this section after that period is reduced in accordance with paragraphs (d)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section; half days will be ignored for purposes of subtraction;

(2) By adding the number of days determined in paragraph (d)(1) of this section to the original term of the patent as shortened by any terminal disclaimer;

(3) By adding 14 years to the date of the issuance of a license under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act;

(4) By comparing the dates for the ends of the periods obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date;

(5) If the original patent was issued after November 16, 1988, by--

(i) Adding 5 years to the original expiration date of the patent or any earlier date set by terminal disclaimer; and

(ii) Comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(5)(i) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date;

(6) If the original patent was issued before November 16, 1988, and

(i) If no request for the authority to prepare an experimental biological product under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act was submitted before November 16, 1988, by--

(A) Adding 5 years to the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date set by terminal disclaimer; and

(B) Comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(6)(i)(A) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date; or

(ii) If a request for the authority to prepare an experimental biological product under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act was submitted before November 16, 1988, and the commercial marketing or use of the product was not approved before November 16, 1988, by--

(A) Adding 3 years to the original expiration date of the patent or earlier date set by terminal disclaimer; and

(B) Comparing the dates obtained pursuant to paragraphs (d)(4) and (d)(6)(ii)(A) of this section with each other and selecting the earlier date.

[52 FR 9394, Mar. 24, 1987, as amended at 54 FR 30382, July 20, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 1.780   Certificate of extension of patent term.

   If a determination is made pursuant to 1.750 that a patent is eligible for extension and that the term of the patent is to be extended, a certificate of extension, under seal, or certificate of interim extension under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(5) will be issued to the applicant for the extension of the patent term. Such certificate will be recorded in the official file of the patent and will be considered as part of the original patent. Notification of the issuance of the certificate of extension will be published in the Official Gazette of the Patent and Trademark Office. Notification of the issuance of the certificate of interim extension under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(5), including the identity of the product currently under regulatory review, will be published in the Official Gazette of the Patent and Trademark Office and in the Federal Register. No certificate of extension will be issued if the term of the patent cannot be extended, even though the patent is otherwise determined to be eligible for extension. In such situations the final determination made pursuant to 1.750 will indicate that no certificate will issue.

[52 FR 9394, Mar. 24, 1987; 60 FR 25618, May 12, 1995]

37 C.F.R. 1.785   Multiple applications for extension of term of the same patent or of different patents for the same regulatory review period for a product.

(a) Only one patent may be extended for a regulatory review period for any product ( 1.720(h)). If more than one application for extension of the same patent is filed, the certificate of extension of patent term, if appropriate, will be issued based upon the first filed application for extension.

(b) If more than one application for extension is filed by a single applicant which seeks the extension of the term of two or more patents based upon the same regulatory review period, and the patents are otherwise eligible for extension pursuant to the requirements of this subpart, in the absence of an election by the applicant, the certificate of extension of patent term, if appropriate, will be issued upon the application for extension of the patent term having the earliest date of issuance of those patents for which extension is sought.

(c) If an application for extension is filed which seeks the extension of the term of a patent based upon the same regulatory review period as that relied upon in one or more applications for extension pursuant to the requirements of this subpart, the certificate of extension of patent term will be issued on the application only if the patent owner or its agent is the holder of the regulatory approval granted with respect to the regulatory review period.

(d) An application for extension shall be considered complete and formal regardless of whether it contains the identification of the holder of the regulatory approval granted with respect to the regulatory review period. When an application contains such information, or is amended to contain such information, it will be considered in determining whether an application is eligible for an extension under this section. A request may be made of any applicant to supply such information within a non-extendable period of not less than one month whenever multiple applications for extension of more than one patent are received and rely upon the same regulatory review period. Failure to provide such information within the period for reply set shall be regarded as conclusively establishing that the applicant is not the holder of the regulatory approval.

(e) Determinations made under this section shall be included in the notice of final determination of eligibility for extension of the patent term pursuant to 1.750 and shall be regarded as part of that determination.

[54 FR 30382, July 20, 1989; 60 FR 25618, May 12, 1995; 62 FR 53132, 53201, Oct. 10, 1997]

37 C.F.R. 1.790   Interim extension of patent term under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(5).

(a) An owner of record of a patent or its agent who reasonably expects that the applicable regulatory review period described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), (2)(B)(ii), (3)(B)(ii), (4)(B) (ii), or (5)(B)(ii) of subsection (g) that began for a product that is the subject of such patent may extend beyond the expiration of the patent term in effect may submit one or more applications for interim extensions for periods of up to one year each. The initial application for interim extension must be filed during the period beginning 6 months and ending 15 days before the patent term is due to expire. Each subsequent application for interim extension must be filed during the period beginning 60 days before and ending 30 days before the expiration of the preceding interim extension. In no event will the interim extensions granted under this section be longer than the maximum period of extension to which the applicant would be entitled under 35 U.S.C. 156(c).

(b) A complete application for interim extension under this section shall include all of the information required for a formal application under 1.740 and a complete application under 1.741. Sections (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(4), and (a)(6)-(a)(17) of 1.740 and 1.741 shall be read in the context of a product currently undergoing regulatory review. Sections (a)(3) and (a)(5) of 1.740 are not applicable to an application for interim extension under this section.

(c) The content of each subsequent interim extension application may be limited to a request for a subsequent interim extension along with a statement that the regulatory review period has not been completed along with any materials or information required under 1.740 and 1.741 that are not present in the preceding interim extension application.

[60 FR 25619, May 12, 1995]

37 C.F.R. 1.791   Termination of interim extension granted prior to regulatory approval of a product for commercial marketing or use.

   Any interim extension granted under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(5) terminates at the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the product involved receives permission for commercial marketing or use. If within that 60-day period the patent owner or its agent files an application for extension under 1.740 and 1.741 including any additional information required under 35 U.S.C. 156(d)(1) not contained in the application for interim extension, the patent shall be further extended in accordance with the provisions of 35 U.S.C. 156.

[60 FR 25619, May 12, 1995]



37 C.F.R. 1.801   Biological material.

   For the purposes of these regulations pertaining to the deposit of biological material for purposes of patents for inventions under 35 U.S.C. 101, the term biological material shall include material that is capable of self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include bacteria, fungi including yeast, algae, protozoa, eukaryotic cells, cell lines, hybridomas, plasmids, viruses, plant tissue cells, lichens and seeds. Viruses, vectors, cell organelles and other non-living material existing in and reproducible from a living cell may be deposited by deposit of the host cell capable of reproducing the non-living material.

[54 FR 34880, Aug. 22, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 1.802   Need or opportunity to make a deposit.

(a) Where an invention is, or relies on, a biological material, the disclosure may include reference to a deposit of such biological material.

(b) Biological material need not be deposited unless access to such material is necessary for the satisfaction of the statutory requirements for patentability under 35 U.S.C. 112. If a deposit is necessary, it shall be acceptable if made in accordance with these regulations. Biological material need not be deposited, inter alia, if it is known and readily available to the public or can be made or isolated without undue experimentation. Once deposited in a depository complying with these regulations, a biological material will be considered to be readily available even though some requirement of law or regulation of the United States or of the country in which the depository institution is located permits access to the material only under conditions imposed for safety, public health or similar reasons.

(c) The reference to a biological material in a specification disclosure or the actual deposit of such material by an applicant or patent owner does not create any presumption that such material is necessary to satisfy 35 U.S.C. 112 or that deposit in accordance with these regulations is or was required.

[54 FR 34880, Aug. 22, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 1.803   Acceptable depository.

(a) A deposit shall be recognized for the purposes of these regulations if made in

(1) any International Depositary Authority (IDA) as established under the Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure, or

(2) any other depository recognized to be suitable by the Office. Suitability will be determined by the Commissioner on the basis of the administrative and technical competence, and agreement of the depository to comply with the terms and conditions applicable to deposits for patent purposes. The Commissioner may seek the advice of impartial consultants on the suitability of a depository. The depository must:

(i) Have a continuous existence;

(ii) Exist independent of the control of the depositor;

(iii) Possess the staff and facilities sufficient to examine the viability of a deposit and store the deposit in a manner which ensures that it is kept viable and uncontaminated;

(iv) Provide for sufficient safety measures to minimize the risk of losing biological material deposited with it;

(v) Be impartial and objective;

(vi) Furnish samples of the deposited material in an expeditious and proper manner; and

(vii) Promptly notify depositors of its inability to furnish samples, and the reasons why.

(b) A depository seeking status under paragraph (a)(2) of this section must direct a communication to the Commissioner which shall:

(1) Indicate the name and address of the depository to which the communication relates;

(2) Contain detailed information as to the capacity of the depository to comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, including information on its legal status, scientific standing, staff and facilities;

(3) Indicate that the depository intends to be available, for the purposes of deposit, to any depositor under these same conditions;

(4) Where the depository intends to accept for deposit only certain kinds of biological material, specify such kinds;

(5) Indicate the amount of any fees that the depository will, upon acquiring the status of suitable depository under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, charge for storage, viability statements and furnishings of samples of the deposit.

(c) A depository having status under paragraph (a)(2) of this section limited to certain kinds of biological material may extend such status to additional kinds of biological material by directing a communication to the Commissioner in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. If a previous communication under paragraph (b) of this section is of record, items in common with the previous communication may be incorporated by reference.

(d) Once a depository is recognized to be suitable by the Commissioner or has defaulted or discontinued its performance under this section, notice thereof will be published in the Office Gazette of the Patent and Trademark Office.

[54 FR 34880, Aug. 22, 1989]

 

Continuation: 37 C.F.R. 1.804   Time of making an original deposit.


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