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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

NATIONAL LEGISLATION - USA

Trademark Laws and Regulations

Regulations: Title 37, Chapter I, Part 2, Code of Federal Regulations


(Continuation)

37 C.F.R. 2.113   Notification of cancellation proceeding.

   When a petition for cancellation has been filed in proper form (see 2.111 and 2.112), a notification shall be prepared by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, which shall identify the title and number of the proceeding and the registration or registrations involved and shall designate a time, not less than thirty days from the mailing date of the notification, within which an answer must be filed. A copy of the notification shall be forwarded to the attorney or other authorized representative of the petitioner, if any, or to the petitioner. The duplicate copy of the petition for cancellation and exhibits shall be forwarded with a copy of the notification to the respondent (see 2.118), who shall be the party shown by the records of the Patent and Trademark Office to be the current owner of the registration or registrations sought to be cancelled, except that the Board, in its discretion, may join or substitute as respondent a party who makes a showing of a current ownership interest in such registration or registrations. When the party identified by the petitioner, pursuant to 2.112(a), as the current owner of the registration or registrations is not the record owner thereof, a courtesy copy of the petition for cancellation shall be forwarded with a copy of the notification to the alleged current owner, which may file a motion to be joined or substituted as respondent. If the petition is found to be defective as to form, the party filing the petition shall be so advised and allowed a reasonable time for correcting the informality.

[54 FR 34897, Aug. 22, 1989; 54 FR 38041, Sept. 14, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 2.114   Answer.

(a) If no answer is filed within the time set, the petition may be decided as in case of default.

(b)

(1) An answer shall state in short and plain terms the respondent's defenses to each claim asserted and shall admit or deny the averments upon which the petitioner relies. If the respondent is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of an averment, respondent shall so state and this will have the effect of a denial. Denials may take any of the forms specified in Rule 8(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. An answer may contain any defense, including the affirmative defenses of unclean hands, laches, estoppel, acquiescence, fraud, mistake, prior judgment, or any other matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense. When pleading special matters, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall be followed. A reply to an affirmative defense need not be filed. When a defense attacks the validity of a registration pleaded in the petition, paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall govern. A pleaded registration is a registration identified by number and date of issuance in an original petition for cancellation or in any amendment thereto made under Rule 15, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(2)

(i) A defense attacking the validity of any one or more of the registrations pleaded in the
petition shall be a compulsory counterclaim if grounds for such counterclaim exist at the time when the answer if filed. If grounds for a counterclaim are known to respondent when the answer to the petition is filed, the counterclaim shall be pleaded with or as part of the answer. If grounds for a counterclaim are learned during the course of the cancellation proceeding, the counterclaim shall be pleaded promptly after the grounds therefor are learned. A counterclaim need not be filed if it is the subject of another proceeding between the same parties or anyone in privity therewith.

(ii) An attack on the validity of a registration pleaded by a petitioner for cancellation will not be heard unless a counterclaim or separate petition is filed to seek the cancellation of such registration.

(iii) The provisions of 2.111 through 2.115, inclusive, shall be applicable to counterclaims. A time, not less than thirty days, will be designated within which an answer to the counterclaim must be filed.

(iv) The times for pleading, discovery, testimony, briefs, or oral argument will be reset or extended when necessary, upon motion by a party, to enable a party fully to present or meet a counterclaim or separate petition for cancellation of a registration.

(c) The petition for cancellation may be withdrawn without prejudice before the answer is filed. After the answer is filed, the petition may not be withdrawn without prejudice except with the written consent of the registrant or the registrant's attorney or other authorized representative.

[30 FR 13193, Oct. 16, 1965, as amended at 46 FR 6940, Jan. 22, 1981; 46 FR 11548, Feb. 9, 1981; 51 FR 28710, Aug. 11, 1986; 54 FR 34898, Aug. 22, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 2.115   Amendment of pleadings in a cancellation proceeding.

   Pleadings in a cancellation proceeding may be amended in the same manner and to the same extent as in a civil action in a United States district court.

[48 FR 23136, May 23, 1983]

37 C.F.R. 2.116   Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(a) Except as otherwise provided, and wherever applicable and appropriate, procedure and practice in inter partes proceedings shall be governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(b) The opposer in an opposition proceeding or the petitioner in a cancellation proceeding shall be in the position of plaintiff, and the applicant in an opposition proceeding or the respondent in a cancellation proceeding shall be in the position of defendant. A party that is a junior party in an interference proceeding or in a concurrent use registration proceeding shall be in the position of plaintiff against every party that is senior, and the party that is a senior party in an interference proceeding or in a concurrent use registration proceeding shall be a defendant against every party that is junior.

(c) The opposition or the petition for cancellation and the answer correspond to the complaint and answer in a court proceeding.

(d) The assignment of testimony periods corresponds to setting a case for trial in court proceedings.

(e) The taking of depositions during the assigned testimony periods corresponds to the trial in court proceedings.

(f) Oral hearing corresponds to oral summation in court proceedings.

[30 FR 13193, Oct. 16, 1965. Re-designated and amended at 37 FR 7606, Apr. 18, 1972; 48 FR 23136, May 23, 1983]

37 C.F.R. 2.117   Suspension of proceedings.

(a) Whenever it shall come to the attention of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board that parties to a pending case are engaged in a civil action which may be dispositive of the case, proceedings before the Board may be suspended until termination of the civil action.

(b) Whenever there is pending, at the time when the question of the suspension of proceedings is raised, a motion which is potentially dispositive of the case, the motion may be decided before the question of suspension is considered.

(c) Proceedings may also be suspended, for good cause, upon motion or a stipulation of the parties approved by the Board.

[48 FR 23136, May 23, 1983]

37 C.F.R. 2.118   Undelivered Office notices.

   When the notices sent by the Patent and Trademark Office to any registrant are returned to the Office undelivered, or when one of the parties resides abroad and his representative in the United States is unknown, additional notice may be given by publication in the Official Gazette for such period of time as the Commissioner may direct.

[30 FR 13193, Oct. 16, 1965]

37 C.F.R. 2.119   Service and signing of papers.

(a) Every paper filed in the Patent and Trademark Office in inter partes cases, including notice of appeal, must be served upon the other parties except the notice of interference ( 2.93), the notification of opposition ( 2.105), the petition for cancellation ( 2.113), and the notice of a concurrent use proceeding ( 2.99), which are mailed by the Patent and Trademark Office. Proof of such service must be made before the paper will be considered by the Office. A statement signed by the attorney or other authorized representative, attached to or appearing on the original paper when filed, clearly stating the date and manner in which service was made will be accepted as prima facie proof of service.

(b) Service of papers must be on the attorney or other authorized representative of the party if there be such or on the party if there is no attorney or other authorized representative, and may be made in any of the following ways:

(1) By delivering a copy of the paper to the person served;

(2) By leaving a copy at the usual place of business of the person served, with someone in the person's employment;

(3) When the person served has no usual place of business, by leaving a copy at the person's residence, with a member of the person's family over 14 years of age and of discretion;

(4) Transmission by the "Express Mail Post Office to Addressee" service of the United States Postal Service or by first-class mail, which may also be certified or registered;

(5) Transmission by overnight courier.

   Whenever it shall be satisfactorily shown to the Commissioner that none of the above modes of obtaining service or serving the paper is practicable, service may be by notice published in the Official Gazette.

(c) When service is made by first-class mail, "Express Mail," or overnight courier, the date of mailing or of delivery to the overnight courier will be considered the date of service. Whenever a party is required to take some action within a prescribed period after the service of a paper upon the party by another party and the paper is served by first-class mail, "Express Mail," or overnight courier, 5 days shall be added to the prescribed period.

(d) If a party to an inter partes proceeding is not domiciled in the United States and is not represented by an attorney or other authorized representative located in the United States, the party must designate by written document filed in the Patent and Trademark Office the name and address of a person resident in the United States on whom may be served notices or process in the proceeding. In such cases, official communications of the Patent and Trademark Office will be addressed to the domestic representative unless the proceeding is being prosecuted by an attorney at law or other qualified person duly authorized under 10.14(c) of this subchapter. The mere designation of a domestic representative does not authorize the person designated to prosecute the proceeding unless qualified under 10.14(a), or qualified under paragraph (b) or (c) of 10.14 and authorized under 2.17(b).

(e) Every paper filed in an inter partes proceeding, and every request for an extension of time to file an opposition, must be signed by the party filing it, or by the party's attorney or other authorized representative, but an unsigned paper will not be refused consideration if a signed copy is submitted to the Patent and Trademark Office within the time limit set in the notification of this defect by the Office.

[37 FR 7606, Apr. 18, 1972, as amended at 41 FR 760, Jan. 5, 1976; 54 FR 34898, Aug. 22, 1989; 54 FR 38041, Sept. 14, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 2.120   Discovery.

(a) In general. The provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery shall apply in opposition, cancellation, interference and concurrent use registration proceedings except as otherwise provided in this section. The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board will specify the closing date for the taking of discovery. The opening of discovery is governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(b) Discovery deposition within the United States. The deposition of a natural person shall be taken in the Federal judicial district where the person resides or is regularly employed or at any place on which the parties agree by stipulation. The responsibility rests wholly with the party taking discovery to secure the attendance of a proposed deponent other than a party or anyone who, at the time set for the taking of the deposition, is an officer, director, or managing agent of a party, or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or Rule 31(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. See 35 U.S.C. 24.

(c) Discovery deposition in foreign countries.

(1) The discovery deposition of a natural person residing in a foreign country who is a party or who, at the time set for the taking of the deposition, is an officer, director, or managing agent of a party, or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or Rule 31(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, shall, if taken in a foreign country, be taken in the manner prescribed by 2.124 unless the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, upon motion for good cause, orders or the parties stipulate, that the deposition be taken by oral examination.

(2) Whenever a foreign party is or will be, during a time set for discovery, present within the United States or any territory which is under the control and jurisdiction of the United States, such party may be deposed by oral examination upon notice by the party seeking discovery. Whenever a foreign party has or will have, during a time set for discovery, an officer, director, managing agent, or other person who consents to testify on its behalf, present within the United States or any territory which is under the control and jurisdiction of the United States, such officer, director, managing agent, or other person who consents to testify in its behalf may be deposed by oral examination upon notice by the party seeking discovery. The party seeking discovery may have one or more officers, directors, managing agents, or other persons who consent to testify on behalf of the adverse party, designated under Rule 30(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The deposition of a person under this paragraph shall be taken in the Federal judicial district where the witness resides or is regularly employed, or, if the witness neither resides nor is regularly employed in a Federal judicial district, where the witness is at the time of the deposition. This paragraph does not preclude the taking of a discovery deposition of a foreign party by any other procedure provided by paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(d) Interrogatories; request for production.

(1) The total number of written interrogatories which a party may serve upon another party pursuant to Rule 33 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, in a proceeding, shall not exceed seventy-five, counting subparts, except that the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, in its discretion, may allow additional interrogatories upon motion therefor showing good cause, or upon stipulation of the parties. A motion for leave to serve additional interrogatories must be filed and granted prior to the service of the proposed additional interrogatories; and must be accompanied by a copy of the interrogatories, if any, which have already been served by the moving party, and by a copy of the interrogatories proposed to be served. If a party upon which interrogatories have been served believes that the number of interrogatories served exceeds the limitation specified in this paragraph, and is not willing to waive this basis for objection, the party shall, within the time for (and instead of) serving answers and specific objections to the interrogatories, serve a general objection on the ground of their excessive number. If the inquiring party, in turn, files a motion to compel discovery, the motion must be accompanied by a copy of the set(s) of interrogatories which together are said to exceed the limitation, and must otherwise comply with the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) The production of documents and things under the provisions of Rule 34 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure will be made at the place where the documents and things are usually kept, or where the parties agree, or where and in the manner which the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, upon motion, orders.

(e) Motion for an order to compel discovery. If a party fails to designate a person pursuant to Rule 30(b)(6) or Rule 31(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, or if a party, or such designated person, or an officer, director or managing agent of a party fails to attend a deposition or fails to answer any question propounded in a discovery deposition, or any interrogatory, or fails to produce and permit the inspection and copying of any document or thing, the party seeking discovery may file a motion before the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board for an order to compel a designation, or attendance at a deposition, or an answer, or production and an opportunity to inspect and copy. The motion shall include a copy of the request for designation or of the relevant portion of the discovery deposition; or a copy of the interrogatory with any answer or objection that was made; or a copy of the request for production, any proffer of production or objection to production in response to the request, and a list and brief description of the documents or things that were not produced for inspection and copying. The motion must be supported by a written statement from the moving party that such party or the attorney therefor has made a good faith effort, by conference or correspondence, to resolve with the other party or the attorney therefor the issues presented in the motion and has been unable to reach agreement. If issues raised in the motion are subsequently resolved by agreement of the parties, the moving party should inform the Board in writing of the issues in the motion which no longer require adjudication.

(f) Motion for a protective order. Upon motion by a party from whom discovery is sought, and for good cause, the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board may make any order which justice requires to protect a party from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the types of orders provided by clauses (1) through (8), inclusive, of Rule 26(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the Board may, on such conditions (other than an award of expenses to the party prevailing on the motion) as are just, order that any party provide or permit discovery.

(g) Sanctions.

(1) If a party fails to comply with an order of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board relating to discovery, including a protective order, the Board may make any appropriate order, including any of the orders provided in Rule 37(b)(2) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, except that the Board does not have authority to hold any person in contempt or to award any expenses to any party. The Board may impose against a party any of the sanctions provided by this subsection in the event that said party or any attorney, agent, or designated witness of that party fails to comply with a protective order made pursuant to Rule 26(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(2) If a party, or an officer, director, or managing agent of a party, or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or 31(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure to testify on behalf of a party, fails to attend the party's or person's discovery deposition, after being served with proper notice, or fails to provide any response to a set of interrogatories or to a set of requests for production of documents and things, and such party or the party's attorney or other authorized representative informs the party seeking discovery that no response will be made thereto, the Board may make any appropriate order, as specified in paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(h) Request for admissions. Requests for admissions shall be governed by Rule 36 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure except that the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board does not have authority to award any expenses to any party. A motion by a party to determine the sufficiency of an answer or objection to a request made by that party for an admission shall include a copy of the request for admission and any exhibits thereto and of the answer or objection. The motion must be supported by a written statement from the moving party that such party or the attorney therefor has made a good faith effort, by conference or correspondence, to resolve with the other party or the attorney therefor the issues presented in the motion and has been unable to reach agreement. If issues raised in the motion are subsequently resolved by agreement of the parties, the moving party should inform the Board in writing of the issues in the motion which no longer require adjudication.

(i) Telephone and pre-trial conferences.

(1) Whenever it appears to the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board that a motion filed in an inter partes proceeding is of such nature that its resolution by correspondence is not practical, the Board may, upon its own initiative or upon request made by one or both of the parties, resolve the motion by telephone conference.

(2) Whenever it appears to the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board that questions or issues arising during the interlocutory phase of an inter partes proceeding have become so complex that their resolution by correspondence or telephone conference is not practical and that resolution would be likely to be facilitated by a conference in person of the parties or their attorneys with a Member or Attorney-Examiner of the Board, the Board may, upon its own initiative or upon motion made by one or both of the parties, request that the parties or their attorneys, under circumstances which will not result in undue hardship for any party, meet with the Board at its offices for a pre-trial conference.

(j) Use of discovery deposition, answer to interrogatory, or admission.

(1) The discovery deposition of a party or of anyone who at the time of taking the deposition was on officer, director or managing agent of a party, or a person designated by a party pursuant to Rule 30(b)(6) or Rule 31(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, may be offered in evidence by an adverse party.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (j)(1) of this section, the discovery deposition of a witness, whether or not a party, shall not be offered in evidence unless the person whose deposition was taken is, during the testimony period of the party offering the deposition, dead; or out of the United States (unless it appears that the absence of the witness was procured by the party offering the deposition); or unable to testify because of age, illness, infirmity, or imprisonment; or cannot be served with a subpoena to compel attendance at a testimonial deposition; or there is a stipulation by the parties; or upon a showing that such exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable, in the interest of justice, to allow the deposition to be used. The use of a discovery deposition by any party under this paragraph will be allowed only by stipulation of the parties approved by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, or by order of the Board on motion, which shall be filed at the time of the purported offer of the deposition in evidence, unless the motion is based upon a claim that such exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable, in the interest of justice, to allow the deposition to be used, in which case the motion shall be filed promptly after the circumstances claimed to justify use of the deposition became known.

(3)

(i) A discovery deposition, an answer to an interrogatory, or an admission to a request for
admission, which may be offered in evidence under the provisions of paragraph (j) of this section may be made of record in the case by filing the deposition or any part thereof with any exhibit to the part that is filed, or a copy of the interrogatory and answer thereto with any exhibit made part of the answer, or a copy of the request for admission and any exhibit thereto and the admission (or a statement that the party from which an admission was requested failed to respond thereto), together with a notice of reliance. The notice of reliance and the material submitted thereunder should be filed during the testimony period of the party which files the notice of reliance. An objection made at a discovery deposition by a party answering a question subject to the objection will be considered at final hearing.

(ii) A party which has obtained documents from another party under Rule 34 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure may not make the documents of record by notice of reliance alone, except to the extent that they are admissible by notice of reliance under the provisions of 2.122(e).

(4) If only part of a discovery deposition is submitted and made part of the record by a party, an adverse party may introduce under a notice of reliance any other part of the deposition which should in fairness be considered so as to make not misleading what was offered by the submitting party. A notice of reliance filed by an adverse party must be supported by a written statement explaining why the adverse party needs to rely upon each additional part listed in the adverse party's notice, failing which the Board, in its discretion, may refuse to consider the additional parts.

(5) An answer to an interrogatory, or an admission to a request for admission, may be submitted and made part of the record by only the inquiring party except that, if fewer than all of the answers to interrogatories, or fewer than all of the admissions, are offered in evidence by the inquiring party, the responding party may introduce under a notice of reliance any other answers to interrogatories, or any other admissions, which should in fairness be considered so as to make not misleading what was offered by the inquiring party. The notice of reliance filed by the responding party must be supported by a written statement explaining why the responding party needs to rely upon each of the additional discovery responses listed in the responding party's notice, failing which the Board, in its discretion, may refuse to consider the additional responses.

(6) Paragraph (j) of this section will not be interpreted to preclude the reading or the use of a discovery deposition, or answer to an interrogatory, or admission as part of the examination or cross-examination of any witness during the testimony period of any party.

(7) When a discovery deposition, or a part thereof, or an answer to an interrogatory, or an admission, has been made of record by one party in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (j)(3) of this section, it may be referred to by any party for any purpose permitted by the Federal Rules of Evidence.

(8) Requests for discovery, responses thereto, and materials or depositions obtained through the discovery process should not be filed with the Board except when submitted with a motion relating to discovery, or in support of or response to a motion for summary judgment, or under a notice of reliance during a party's testimony period. Papers or materials filed in violation of this paragraph may be returned by the Board.

[48 FR 23136, May 23, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 34898, Aug. 22, 1989; 54 FR 38041, Sept. 14, 1989; 56 FR 46379, Sept. 12, 1991; 56 FR 54917, Oct. 23, 1991]

37 C.F.R. 2.121   Assignment of times for taking testimony.

(a)

(1) The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board will issue a trial order assigning to each party the time for taking testimony. No testimony shall be taken except during the times assigned, unless by stipulation of the parties approved by the Board, or, upon motion, by order of the Board. Testimony periods may be rescheduled by stipulation of the parties approved by the Board, or upon motion granted by the Board, or by order of the Board. The resetting of the closing date for discovery will result in the rescheduling of the testimony periods without action by any party. The resetting of a party's time to respond to an outstanding request for discovery will not result in the automatic rescheduling of the discovery and/or testimony periods; such dates will be rescheduled only upon stipulation of the parties approved by the Board, or upon motion granted by the Board, or by order of the Board.

(2) The initial trial order will be mailed by the Board after issue is joined.

(b)

(1) The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board will schedule a testimony period for the plaintiff to
present its case in chief, a testimony period for the defendant to present its case and to meet the case of the plaintiff, and a testimony period for the plaintiff to present evidence in rebuttal.

(2) When there is a counterclaim, or when proceedings have been consolidated and one party is in the position of plaintiff in one of the involved proceedings and in the position of defendant in another of the involved proceedings, or when there is an interference or a concurrent use registration proceeding involving more than two parties, the Board will schedule testimony periods so that each party in the position of plaintiff will have a period for presenting its case in chief against each party in the position of defendant, each party in the position of defendant will have a period for presenting its case and meeting the case of each plaintiff, and each party in the position of plaintiff will have a period for presenting evidence in rebuttal.

(c) A testimony period which is solely for rebuttal will be set for fifteen days. All other testimony periods will be set for thirty days. The periods may be extended by stipulation of the parties approved by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, or upon motion granted by the Board, or by order of the Board.

(d) When parties stipulate to the rescheduling of testimony periods or to the rescheduling of the closing date for discovery and the rescheduling of testimony periods, a stipulation presented in the form used in a trial order, signed by the parties, or a motion in said form signed by one party and including a statement that every other party has agreed thereto, and submitted in one original plus as many photocopies as there are parties, will, if approved, be so stamped, signed, and dated, and the copies will be promptly returned to the parties.

[48 FR 23138, May 23, 1983; 48 FR 27226, June 14, 1983; 54 FR 34899, Aug. 22, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 2.122   Matters in evidence.

(a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence for proceedings before the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board are the Federal Rules of Evidence, the relevant provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the relevant provisions of Title 28 of the United States Code, and the provisions of this part of title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(b) Application files.

(1) The file of each application or registration specified in a declaration of interference, of each application or registration specified in the notice of a concurrent use registration proceeding, of the application against which a notice of opposition is filed, or of each registration against which a petition or counterclaim for cancellation is filed forms part of the record of the proceeding without any action by the parties and reference may be made to the file for any relevant and competent purpose.

(2) The allegation in an application for registration, or in a registration, of a date of use is not evidence on behalf of the applicant or registrant; a date of use of a mark must be established by competent evidence. Specimens in the file of an application for registration, or in the file of a registration, are not evidence on behalf of the applicant or registrant unless identified and introduced in evidence as exhibits during the period for the taking of testimony.

(c) Exhibits to pleadings. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, an exhibit attached to a pleading is not evidence on behalf of the party to whose pleading the exhibit is attached unless identified and introduced in evidence as an exhibit during the period for the taking of testimony.

(d) Registrations.

(1) A registration of the opposer or petitioner pleaded in an opposition or petition to cancel will be received in evidence and made part of the record if the opposition or petition is accompanied by two copies of the registration prepared and issued by the Patent and Trademark Office showing both the current status of and current title to the registration. For the cost of a copy of a registration showing status and title, see 2.6(n).

(2) A registration owned by any party to a proceeding may be made of record in the proceeding by that party by appropriate identification and introduction during the taking of testimony or by filing a notice of reliance, which shall be accompanied by a copy of the registration prepared and issued by the Patent and Trademark Office showing both the current status of and current title to the registration. The notice of reliance shall be filed during the testimony period of the party that files the notice.

(e) Printed publications and official records. Printed publications, such as books and periodicals, available to the general public in libraries or of general circulation among members of the public or that segment of the public which is relevant under an issue in a proceeding, and official records, if the publication of official record is competent evidence and relevant to an issue, may be introduced in evidence by filing a notice of reliance on the material being offered. The notice shall specify the printed publication (including information sufficient to identify the source and the date of the publication) or the official record and the pages to be read; indicate generally the relevance of the material being offered; and be accompanied by the official record or a copy thereof whose authenticity is established under the Federal Rules of Evidence, or by the printed publication or a copy of the relevant portion thereof. A copy of an official record of the Patent and Trademark Office need not be certified to be offered in evidence. The notice of reliance shall be filed during the testimony period of the party that files the notice.

(f) Testimony from other proceedings. By order of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, on motion, testimony taken in another proceeding, or testimony taken in a suit or action in a court, between the same parties or those in privity may be used in a proceeding, so far as relevant and material, subject, however, to the right of any adverse party to recall or demand the recall for examination or cross-examination of any witness whose prior testimony has been offered and to rebut the testimony.

[48 FR 23138, May 23, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 34899, Aug. 22, 1989; 54 FR 38041, Sept. 14, 1989]

37 C.F.R. 2.123   Trial testimony in inter partes cases.

(a)

(1) The testimony of witnesses in inter partes cases may be taken by depositions upon oral
examination as provided by this section or by depositions upon written questions as provided by 2.124. If a party serves notice of the taking of a testimonial deposition upon written questions of a witness who is, or will be at the time of the deposition, present within the United States or any territory which is under the control and jurisdiction of the United States, any adverse party may, within fifteen days from the date of service of the notice, file a motion with the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, for good cause, for an order that the deposition be taken by oral examination.

(2) A testimonial deposition taken in a foreign country shall be taken by deposition upon written questions as provided by 2.124, unless the Board, upon motion for good cause, orders that the deposition be taken by oral examination, or the parties so stipulate.

(b) Stipulations. If the parties so stipulate in writing, depositions may be taken before any person authorized to administer oaths, at any place, upon any notice, and in any manner, and when so taken may be used like other depositions. By agreement of the parties, the testimony of any witness or witnesses of any party, may be submitted in the form of an affidavit by such witness or witnesses. The parties may stipulate what a particular witness would testify to if called, or the facts in the case of any party may be stipulated.

(c) Notice of examination of witnesses. Before the depositions of witnesses shall be taken by a party, due notice in writing shall be given to the opposing party or parties, as provided in 2.119(b), of the time when and place where the depositions will be taken, of the cause or matter in which they are to be used, and the name and address of each witness to be examined; if the name of a witness is not known, a general description sufficient to identify the witness or the particular class or group to which the witness belongs, together with a satisfactory explanation, may be given instead. Depositions may be noticed for any reasonable time and place in the United States. A deposition may not be noticed for a place in a foreign country except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. No party shall take depositions in more than one place at the same time, nor so nearly at the same time that reasonable opportunity for travel from one place of examination to the other is not available.

(d) Persons before whom depositions may be taken. Depositions may be taken before persons designated by Rule 28 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(e) Examination of witnesses.

(1) Each witness before testifying shall be duly sworn according to law by the officer before whom his deposition is to be taken.

(2) The deposition shall be taken in answer to questions, with the questions and answers recorded in their regular order by the officer, or by some other person (who shall be subject to the provisions of Rule 28 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure) in the presence of the officer except when the officer's presence is waived on the record by agreement of the parties. The testimony shall be taken stenographically and transcribed, unless the parties present agree otherwise. In the absence of all opposing parties and their attorneys or other authorized representatives, depositions may be taken in longhand, typewriting, or stenographically. Exhibits which are marked and identified at the deposition will be deemed to have been offered into evidence, without any formal offer thereof, unless the intention of the party marking the exhibits is clearly expressed to the contrary.

(3) Every adverse party shall have full opportunity to cross-examine each witness. If the notice of examination of witnesses which is served pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section is improper or inadequate with respect to any witness, an adverse party may cross-examine that witness under protest while reserving the right to object to the receipt of the testimony in evidence. Promptly after the testimony is completed, the adverse party, if he wishes to preserve the objection, shall move to strike the testimony from the record, which motion will be decided on the basis of all of the relevant circumstances. A motion to strike the testimony of a witness for lack of proper or adequate notice of examination must request the exclusion of the entire testimony of that witness and not only a part of that testimony.

(4) All objections made at the time of the examination to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition, or to the manner of taking it, or to the evidence presented, or to the conduct of any party, and any other objection to the proceedings, shall be noted by the officer upon the deposition. Evidence objected to shall be taken subject to the objections.

(5) When the deposition has been transcribed, the deposition shall be carefully read over by the witness or by the officer to him, and shall then be signed by the witness in the presence of any officer authorized to administer oaths unless the reading and the signature be waived on the record by agreement of all parties.

(f) Certification and filing by officer. The officer shall annex to the deposition his certificate showing:

(1) Due administration of the oath by the officer to the witness before the commencement of his deposition;

(2) The name of the person by whom the deposition was taken down, and whether, if not taken down by the officer, it was taken down in his presence;

(3) The presence or absence of the adverse party;

(4) The place, day, and hour of commencing and taking the deposition;

(5) The fact that the officer was not disqualified as specified in Rule 28 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

   If any of the foregoing requirements are waived, the certificate shall so state. The officer shall sign the certificate and affix thereto his seal of office, if he has such a seal. Unless waived on the record by an agreement, he shall then, without delay, securely seal in an envelope all the evidence, notices, and paper exhibits, inscribe upon the envelope a certificate giving the number and title of the case, the name of each witness, and the date of sealing, address the package, and forward the same to the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks. If the weight or bulk of an exhibit shall exclude it from the envelope, it shall, unless waived on the record by agreement of all parties, be authenticated by the officer and transmitted in a separate package marked and addressed as provided in this section.

(g) Form of deposition.

(1) The pages of each deposition must be numbered consecutively, and the name of the witness plainly and conspicuously written at the top of each page. The deposition may be written on legal-size or letter-size paper, with a wide margin on the left-hand side of the page, and with the writing on one side only of the sheet. The questions propounded to each witness must be consecutively numbered unless paper with numbered lines is used, and each question must be followed by its answer.

(2) Exhibits must be numbered or lettered consecutively and each must be marked with the number and title of the case and the name of the party offering the exhibit. Entry and consideration may be refused to improperly marked exhibits.

(3) Each deposition must contain an index of the names of the witnesses, giving the pages where their examination and cross-examination begin, and an index of the exhibits, briefly describing their nature and giving the pages at which they are introduced and offered in evidence.

(h) Depositions must be filed. All depositions which are taken must be duly filed in the Patent and Trademark Office. On refusal to file, the Office at its discretion will not further hear or consider the contestant with whom the refusal lies; and the Office may, at its discretion, receive and consider a copy of the withheld deposition, attested by such evidence as is procurable.

(i) Inspection of depositions. After the depositions are filed in the Office, they may be inspected by any party to the case, but they cannot be withdrawn for the purpose of printing. They may be printed by someone specially designated by the Office for that purpose, under proper restrictions.

(j) Effect of errors and irregularities in depositions: Rule 32(d) (1), (2), and (3) (A) and (B) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply to errors and irregularities in depositions. Notice will not be taken of merely formal or technical objections which shall not appear to have wrought a substantial injury to the party raising them; and in case of such injury it must be made to appear that the objection was raised at the time specified in said rule.

(k) Objections to admissibility: Subject to the provisions of paragraph (j) of this section, objection may be made to receiving in evidence any deposition, or part thereof, or any other evidence, for any reason which would require the exclusion of the evidence from consideration. Objections to the competency of a witness or to the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony must be raised at the time specified in Rule 32(d)(3)(A) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Such objections will not be considered until final hearing.

(l) Evidence not considered. Evidence not obtained and filed in compliance with these sections will not be considered.

[37 FR 7607, Apr. 18, 1972, as amended at 41 FR 760, Jan. 5, 1976; 48 FR 23139, May 23, 1983; 54 FR 34899, Aug. 22, 1989; 54 FR 38041, Sept. 14, 1989]

Continuation: 37 C.F.R. 2.124   Depositions upon written questions.


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